September 11, 1609: Town Criers Announce Order Expelling Muslims from Spain

Royal legislation concerning the Moriscos was dictated at every stage by the Church. Juan de Ribera (1542-1611), the aging Archbishop of Valencia, who had initially been a firm believer in the efficacy of missionary work, became in his declining years the chief partisan of expulsion. In a sermon preached on September 27th, 1609, he said that the land would not become fertile again until these heretics had been expelled. The Duke of Lerma (Philip III’s first minister, 1598-1618) also underwent a change of heart when it was agreed that the lords of Valencia would be given the lands of the expelled Moriscos in compensation for the loss of their vassals.

The decision to proceed with the expulsion was approved unanimously by the Council of State on January 30th, 1608, although the actual decree was not signed by the King until April 4th, 1609. Galleons of the Spanish fleet were secretly prepared, and they were later joined by many foreign merchant ships, including several from England. On September 11th, the expulsion order was announced by town criers in the Kingdom of Valencia, and the first convoy departed from Denia at nightfall on October 2nd, and arrived in Oran less than three days later. The Moriscos of Aragon, Castile, Andalusia and Extremadura received expulsion orders during the course of the following year.

For Further Reading

Roger Boase ‘The Morisco Expulsion and Diaspora’, Cultures in Contact in Medieval Spain ed David Hook and Barry Taylor (London, King’s College, 1990);  Henry Charles Lea, The Moriscos of Spain: Their Conversion and Expulsion (Bernard Quaritch, 1901); Anwar G. Chejne, Islam and the West: The Moriscos (State University of New York Press, 1983); Louis Cardaillac, Morisques et chrétiens: un affrontement polémique (1492-1640) (Klincksieck, 1977); L.P. Harvey ‘The Political, Social and Cultural History of the Moriscos’, The Legacy of Muslim Spain ed. Salma Khadra Jayyusi (E.J. Brill, 1992).

  • Roger Boase is an Honorary Research Fellow at Queen Mary College, University of London, and author of The Origin and Meaning of Courtly Love (Manchester UP, 1977).

Other events that appear to have uncanny similar timing in relation to the 9-11-2001 attacks were the 1972
Olympics, and President Bush’s 1990 Gulf War Speech.

The world was introduced to terrorism at the 1972 Munich Olympic Games. These games ended on September
11, 1972. There were 121 participating countries (11X11=121), and 11 Israeli athletes were killed. Exactly 29
years (2+9=11) after this terrorist horror ended, another more despicable horror occurred – the September 11,
2001 terrorist attacks.

On September 11, 1990 President George Bush (Sr.) made a dramatic speech to Congress, outlining the US
position in the Kuwait crisis, and the preliminary steps the US was taking towards the Gulf War. Exactly
11 years later, on September 11, 2001, terrorists attacked America.


September 11 1978: From September 5 through September 17, 1978, twelve days of secret negotiations were conducted at Camp David between Sadat and Begin, mediated by US President Jimmy Carter. The Israeli-Egyptian negotiations were concluded by the signing of two agreements at the White House. The agreements were based on UN resolutions 242 and 338, and were meant to constitute a basis for peace between Egypt and Israel, as well as to reach “a just, comprehensive, and durable settlement of the Middle East conflict” for all neighbors willing to negotiate with Israel.



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The larger the government, the smaller the individual.
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